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It is called normal vision to be able to see from both eyes separately from a certain distance a certain object, distinguish all colors, to see the environment in a certain width, to see certain vague shapes in light and to distinguish objects in a certain size in darkness. 

When does seeing begin?

Seeing begins with the first light of birth. It is known that babies distinguish the light in the mother’s womb, but it is not possible to refer this as “seeing” in a real sense. 

How is the infant vision right after birth?

Although babies distinguish between darkness and light, their sleep is not regular because they cannot fully adjust to the condition within the first month. In humans, the separation of day and night is done by cells that separate the light from the darkness. Because the communication between the eye and the brain is not regular at the beginning, babies may wake up in the middle of the night, but after a while, this communication starts to work normally, and the baby’s sleeping pattern becomes normal. It is normally expected from a baby to react to the light in the first few weeks, and then the eye contact appears in the first 3 months. A-few-months-old babies cannot see clearly. They can only distinguish objects and people within 50-100 cm from them. At this age, they can see the environment better than seeing the center.

Why babies cannot see as clearly as adults?

Babies’ nervous systems have not yet fully developed after birth, so they cannot talk, walk and do many other things right away. In order for the nerves to operate at full capacity, they must have a cover around them. If there isn’t a plastic cover around the electrical wire, it cannot transmit electricity functionally, and if the nerves are not covered, they cannot transmit signals from brain to body. This takes time to develop. Vision, speech and walking also develop over time.

Vision is basically necessary to survive from danger and to find food. In this respect, it is enough for babies to see only their mother or their feeding bottle. In other words, it is necessary and sufficient to see the distance of only 50 cm. It is not necessary to see an object or a person at a distance they cannot go to.

When does eyesight development finish?

In infants, vision, which is initially at a distance of 50 cm, develops with increased mobility. When babies are new born, they can only see the images that is very close to them; in time, they start to see things that are not very close by moving their heads. Later, they can observe objects standing on the side of them with their eyes only, without moving their heads, so they can start to capture objects at this stage. From 6 months onwards, watching moving objects will increase. It reaches the same level as ones around the age of 5, but development still continues at this age. After age 7-9, the development is completed.

Does vision develop spontaneously?

Vision does not develop spontaneously, it develops through stimulation. Children growing in a dark cave or with cataracts preventing them from seeing in both eyes like a curtain cannot develop normally. In order for the development of the central vision cells, illuminated, shaped, moving colored stimuli (objects, shapes, living beings) need to be examined.

From this point of view, sight is different from other senses. Hearing, touching, tasting and smelling develop without stimulation, but with stimuli they get more efficient. Listening to music makes it more skillful to hear, encountering different tastes and smells makes the taste and smell senses more educated.

Month to month development

0-2 months: From the distance of 25-50 cm, they see light, vibrant and monochromatic (except blue), bright and large objects. They notice their mothers. They see the surrounding objects better than the central ones. The vision is about 5 percent.

2-3 months: They can come eye to eye with a person with a closer look. They start to watch moving vibrant, bright, large objects that move horizontally. Tracking circulating objects is the last to follow.

3-6 months: They perceive the place of living; colorful, bright, large objects and try to grab them.

6-10 months: They can see smaller objects from a wider distance (1-3 m) and try to grab them. If they only see half of an object they have already known, they can guess and recognize the whole thing.

10-18 months: They can see objects in longer distances (3-6 m) and recognize people.

18 months: They can recognize the details of the toys; see clearly the pictures in the picture books.

24 months: They can see the smallest detail of objects, and can distinguish similarities and differences.

3 years: Sight has reached about 80 percent of adult vision.

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